General Overview

ADAMO is a magnetic spectrometer that was developed originally as a test prototype of the magnetic spectrometer of the PAMELA Satellite experiment (see for a local page and for the main website). It is currently used as

a) training system for the students of the Laboratory of Subnuclear Physics of the Degree in Physics and Astrophysics of Univ. of Firenze

b) detector to measure the atmospheric cosmic rays spectra at ground level

In particular it allows high precision measurements of the muon ( μ ) flux in the atmosphere in the momentum range between 0.1 GeV/c and 150 GeV/c approximately. The importance of this kind of measurement was originally related to the study of neutrino ( ν ) oscillations. Several experiments around the world have been developed to study neutrino oscillations by means of atmospheric muon neutrinos detection. Since the atmospheric muon neutrino and muon fluxes are strictly related, beeing these particles mostly produced in the decays of charged pions ( π ), accurate measurements of atmospheric muon flux are very useful to verify and "calibrate" the calculations of neutrino fluxes to be compared with the epxerimental data.
ADAMO is realized in such a way that it can be easily moved in order to measure fluxes at different places, for instance at different altitude or latitude; moreover its platform allows us easily to change the measuring direction. This allows for example measuring the dependency of the cosmic ray flux at ground on the zenith angle. For this kind of measurement not exaustive data sets can be found in the literature and ADAMO can give an important contribution. The measurement of the cosmic ray flux for different zenith angles is useful for at least two different reasons: the first is to establish a reference data set in the momentum range below 100 GeV/c to be used as a check or calibration point for the simulations of the so-called atmospheric shower produced by primary cosmic rays entering the Earth atmosphere; the second is to have a reference data set for all applications for which the knowledge of not vertical cosmic ray flux is useful or necessary (for example the study of cosmic ray background events for the large experiment at CERN or applications of the muon radiography technique).

ADAMO Telescope

ADAMO telescope

The ADAMO "telescope" lodged on its original altazimuthal platform (now replaced by a larger one). In the high part of the spectrometer a microstrip silicon detector is visible.

A magnetic spectrometer is a detector designed to reconstruct the tracks of particles moving through a high magnetic field region. The presence of the field determines a bending of the trajectory of charged particles and the strenght of this effect depends upon the geometry of the field, the kind of particles and their velocity. By the measurement of the magnetic field intensity inside the detector and the curvature of the tracks, it is possible to determine the particles momentum, the sign of their charges and the incoming direction. This allows to determine the particle momentum and angular spectra and the charge ratio (the ratio between the fluxes of positive and negative charge components).


Responsible of the project: Dott. Lorenzo Bonechi
Info: Dott. Lorenzo Bonechi - Prof. Oscar Adriani - Dott. Paolo Papini

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